Luis Camnitzer

Guiding Questions

“What is Latin America, and who asks the question? Who is the artist, there and here?" Why does Luis Camnitzer put Latin America into question and why does it matter “who asks the question?”

“Latin America” is a concept with a complex history and shifting meanings. For the artist Luis Camnitzer, it has been both a framework and an ideal for locating the transformative potentials of art.


The following exercises are structured to sequentially build on each other. We encourage you to consider how their learning objectives develop as you engage with these activities or adapt them to your teaching.

Activity 1: Guiding Question (Activating Prior Knowledge)

Activity 2: This is a Mirror You are a Written Sentence

Activity 3: Landscape as an Attitude

Activity 4: Quotes


Born in Germany in 1937, Camnitzer moved to Uruguay with his family in 1939 to escape persecution by the Nazi regime. Growing up as a bilingual German and Spanish speaker, he then studied sculpture and architecture in the city of Montevideo before moving to New York City in 1964. In New York, Camnitzer became part of a wider set of artists who rejected the conventional approach to making art at the time. Instead of creating objects to be looked at by passive viewers, this set of artists proposed that an artwork could be an idea. For some conceptual artists, as they became known, artworks could be a way of interrogating the nature of art in language. For others, idea-based artworks could be proposed and realized by anyone, in a variety of forms – potentially making art more democratic and accessible.

By the 1970s, Camnitzer began relating his artworks to the political events and history of Uruguay and its wider regional context. This was a period when multiple countries in South and Central America, including Uruguay, were ruled under repressive military regimes – often directly or indirectly supported by North American and European governments. Many artists living and working in these countries also used art as a means of communicating ideas, of subverting repressive political structures, and of conveying knowledge. For these artists, creating art based on ideas – not objects – was not only a way of transforming art. It was also a strategy for transforming an oppressive social reality.

In the 1980s and 1990s, as Camnitzer reflected upon his conceptual art practice and connections both to Uruguay and New York, he began to question how conceptual art was defined, and by whom. In many mainstream art institutions, “conceptual art” was work produced by artists in the U.S. and Western Europe. This narrative obscured the work of artists in Latin America who produced idea-based art using similar, but different strategies. For Camnitzer, this situation could be traced back to structures of economic and cultural power. This guide presents Camnitzer’s artistic methods for questioning and contesting these structures of power.

Additional Materials


Reading Resources: Luis Camnitzer is available as a downloadable PDF.

We would also love to hear how you have used Reading Resources. Please share feedback and student work at [email protected].


Reading Resources: Luis Camnitzer was produced by Wendy Tronrud (A.R.T. Education Advisor) in collaboration with A.rt R.esources T.ransfer (A.R.T.) in 2022–23.

This program is supported, in part, by public funds from the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs, in partnership with the City Council.

Further support was granted by:
National Endowment for the Arts
H.W. Wilson Foundation
Wilhelm Family Foundation
A.R.T. Board of Directors
A.R.T. Advisory Board

Most specially, we thank Luis Camnitzer.

Design by Other Means.

Copyright © A.rt R.esources T.ransfer, Inc. 2023.

All images are protected under copyright by the original rights holders.

A.R.T. is a 501(c)3 nonprofit.

Join our mailing list to get updates on news, activities, and educational resources.

Follow: Instagram

Support A.rt R.esources T.ransfer

I will give a donation of

You will be redirected off-site to complete your donation.

I want to to the Library Program

A.rt R.esources T.ransfer
526 W 26th Street, #614
New York, NY 10001
[email protected]